Exergoenvironmental-Life cycle cost analysis for conventional, low external input and organic systems of rice paddy production

Climate change, increasing energy demand, and fossil fuel constraints have led to many plights regarding sustainable food and agricultural production. The purpose of this paper is to assess of exergoenvironmental aspects across different paddy production systems, including conventional (CS), low external input (LEI), and organic systems (OS) in Iran. Also, life cycle cost (LCC) and the emissions costs have been considered as a novelty for these scenarios. Data were collected through interviews from 213 paddy producers.